Painting terminology and common words used in Painting.

Acid

Having a pH of less than 7; turns blue litmus paper red.

Alligatoring

Breaks in the coating film which are wide and extensive, but which do not penetrate to the substrate

Alkaline

Having a pH of more than 7; turns red litmus paper blue

Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Aromatic: of, relating to, or characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring -used to describe cyclic unsaturated hydrocar-bons and their derivatives

Binder

The non-volatile part of a medium

Blistering

Isolated convex deformation of a paint film in the form of blisters arising from the detachment of one or more of the coats

Blooming

The formation of a thin film on the tip of a paint film thereby reducing the luster or veiling its depth of color

Blushing

The formation of a milky opalescence in clear finishes caused by deposition of moisture from the atmosphere and/or precipitation of one or more of the solid constituents of the finish

Body

Used to indicate the consistency of a paint

Catalyst

A substance whose presence increases the rate of a chemical reaction

Checking

Slight breaks in the surface of a paint film which do not render the underlying surface visible when the film is viewed at a magnification of ten times

irregular pattern type

Checking in which the breaks arc in no definite pattern

 

 

line type

Checking in which the breaks are, in general, in parallel lines

 

 

crow-foot type

Checking in which the breaks are in a series of three-pronged formations in which the prongs radiate from a point with an angle of approximately 120° between prongs

 

 

Chipping

The removal of paint and surface contaminants from a substrate by means of impact from a sharpened tool

 

 

Coalescent

United to a whole; fused; grown together

 

 

Cobwebbing

The formation of fine filaments of partly dried paint during the spray application of a fast drying paint

 

 

Corrosion

The deterioration of a substrate (usually metal) or its properties because of a reaction with its environments

 

 

Cracking

Formation of breaks in a paint film that expose the underlying surface

 

 

irregular pattern type

Cracking in which the breaks are in no definite pattern

 

 

line type

Cracking in which the breaks are, in general, in parallel lines

 

 

sigmoid type

Cracking in which the breaks are in relatively large curves which meet and/or intersect

 

 

Crazing

The formation of minute criss-cross cracks on the surface of a paint film

 

 

 

NOTE: Crazing resembles "checking" but the cracks are deeper and broader and exhibit a polygonal pattern resembling crazy paving

 

 

Crinkling

The development of wrinkles in a paint film during drying

Curing Mechanism

The means by which the coating goes from a liquid to a dry film

 

 

Drier

A compound, usually organi-metallic and soluble in organic solvents and binders, which is added to paint to accelerate drying by catalytic oxidation

 

 

Drying Oil

An oil which possesses to a marked degree the property of readily taking up oxygen from the air and changing to a relatively hard, tough, elastic substance when exposed in a thin Film to the air

 

 

Dry film Thickness (DFT)

The thickness of a coating after all the solvent has evaporated and the coating has cured

 

 

Ester

An often fragrant compound formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol

 

 

Evaporate

To convert from a liquid into vapor

 

 

Filler

A composition used for Filling fine cracks and indentations to obtain a smooth finish preparatory to painting

 

 

Flattening Agent

A material added to paints, varnishes, etc. to reduce the gloss of the film

 

 

Gloss

The visual impression created by the reflecting properties of a surface

 

 

Grinning Through

The effect observed when a paint does not totally obscure the underlying surface

 

 

Hardener

A cross-linking agent used to cure a resin or paint system

 

 

Hiding Power

The ability of a paint to obliterate the color difference of a substrate: opacity

 

 

Holidays

Defects characterized by a film having areas of insufficient thickness, even to the point where parts of the surface may remain uncoated

Hydrolyzed

To undergo a chemical process of decomposition involving splitting of a bond and addition of the elements of water

 

 

Inhibitor

A material used in small proportion to slow a chemical reaction

 

 

Ketone

An organic compound; some of the more familiar ketone solvents arc acetone and methyl ethylketone

 

 

Kick Out

Separation of constituents of a coating caused by addition of incorrect solvent

 

 

Leveling

The flowing out of a paint film after application so as to produce a level surface

 

 

Litmus

A chemical that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions and is used as an acid base indicator

 

 

Mastic

A heavy-bodied, paste-like coating often applied with a trowel to produce a thick, protective film

 

 

M Ohm

1,000,000 ohms

 

 

Non-Drying Oil

An oil which does not of itself possess to a perceptible degree the power to take up oxygen from the air and lose its liquid characteristics

 

 

Non-Volatile Vehicle

The total sum of the constituents of the liquid phase of the paint, not readily vaporizable at a relatively low temperature

 

 

Ohm

The standard unit of electrical resistance

 

 

Opacity

The ability' of a paint to obliterate the color difference of a substrate; hiding power

 

 

Orange Peel

The pock-marked appearance of a sprayed film due to its failure to flow out to a level surface

 

 

Overspray

Sprayed paint which misses the surface to be coated

 

 

Oxidation

Combination of coating molecules with atmospheric oxygen

 

 

pH

A description of the degree to which a substance is acid or alkaline; pH is expressed by means of a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 representing neutrality. Numbers less than 7 indicate acidity; the lower the number, the more acidic the substance

 

 

 

pH numbers greater than 7 indicate alkalinity; the higher the number the more alkaline the substance

 

 

Pigment

A substance, generally in fine powder form, which is practically insoluble in media and which is physically dispersed in the binder to impart specific physical and chemical properties (optical, protective, decorative, etc.)

 

 

Pinholes

Minute holes in a dry film which form during application and drying of paint

 

 

 

 

Plasticizer

Chemical added, especially to rubbers and resins, to impart flexibility, workability, or stretchability

 

 

Polymer

A chemical compound or mixture of compounds formed by polymerization

 

 

Polymerization

A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules

 

 

Primer

The first coat of a painting system that helps bind subsequent coats to the substrate and which may inhibit its deterioration

 

 

Resin

A natural or synthetic material used to bind pigments together and to the substrate

 

 

Retarder

A slow evaporating solvent used as a thinner to slow down the speed of drying of a paint or lacquer to improve the application properties or produce a better film

 

 

Seeds

Undesirable particles or granules other than dues, found in a paint or varnish

 

 

Spreading Rate

Refers to the area, in square feet, which can be covered by one gallon of coating at a given Wet Film Thickness (WFT)

 

 

Solvent

A liquid, single or blended, which is volatile under normal drying conditions and in which the binder will dissolve completely

 

 

Streaking

The formation of irregular lines or streaks of various colors in a paint film caused by contamination of insufficient or improper incorporation of colorant

 

 

Substrate

The surface to which a coat of paint or varnish is applied

 

 

Teardrops

Drops of paint which collect on the bottom edges of items painted by dipping

 

 

Thinner

A volatile liquid, single or blended, added to paint to facilitate application by lowering the viscosity

 

 

Thixatropic

The property of a paint whereby the consistency is reduced on brushing or stirring by lowering the viscosity

 

 

Too Thick Coatings

Mil thickness is greater than specified; can result in blisters or other failures

 

 

Too Thin Coatings

Mil thickness less than specified; can result in premature coating failure

Vehicle

The total sum of the constituents of the liquid phase of the paint

Wet Film Thickness (WFT)

The thickness of a coating immediately after application, before any solvent has evaporated


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