Painting terminology and common words used in Painting.


Having a pH of less than 7; turns blue litmus paper red.


Breaks in the coating film which are wide and extensive, but which do not penetrate to the substrate


Having a pH of more than 7; turns red litmus paper blue

Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Aromatic: of, relating to, or characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring -used to describe cyclic unsaturated hydrocar-bons and their derivatives


The non-volatile part of a medium


Isolated convex deformation of a paint film in the form of blisters arising from the detachment of one or more of the coats


The formation of a thin film on the tip of a paint film thereby reducing the luster or veiling its depth of color


The formation of a milky opalescence in clear finishes caused by deposition of moisture from the atmosphere and/or precipitation of one or more of the solid constituents of the finish


Used to indicate the consistency of a paint


A substance whose presence increases the rate of a chemical reaction


Slight breaks in the surface of a paint film which do not render the underlying surface visible when the film is viewed at a magnification of ten times

irregular pattern type

Checking in which the breaks arc in no definite pattern



line type

Checking in which the breaks are, in general, in parallel lines



crow-foot type

Checking in which the breaks are in a series of three-pronged formations in which the prongs radiate from a point with an angle of approximately 120° between prongs




The removal of paint and surface contaminants from a substrate by means of impact from a sharpened tool




United to a whole; fused; grown together




The formation of fine filaments of partly dried paint during the spray application of a fast drying paint




The deterioration of a substrate (usually metal) or its properties because of a reaction with its environments




Formation of breaks in a paint film that expose the underlying surface



irregular pattern type

Cracking in which the breaks are in no definite pattern



line type

Cracking in which the breaks are, in general, in parallel lines



sigmoid type

Cracking in which the breaks are in relatively large curves which meet and/or intersect




The formation of minute criss-cross cracks on the surface of a paint film




NOTE: Crazing resembles "checking" but the cracks are deeper and broader and exhibit a polygonal pattern resembling crazy paving




The development of wrinkles in a paint film during drying

Curing Mechanism

The means by which the coating goes from a liquid to a dry film




A compound, usually organi-metallic and soluble in organic solvents and binders, which is added to paint to accelerate drying by catalytic oxidation



Drying Oil

An oil which possesses to a marked degree the property of readily taking up oxygen from the air and changing to a relatively hard, tough, elastic substance when exposed in a thin Film to the air



Dry film Thickness (DFT)

The thickness of a coating after all the solvent has evaporated and the coating has cured




An often fragrant compound formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol




To convert from a liquid into vapor




A composition used for Filling fine cracks and indentations to obtain a smooth finish preparatory to painting



Flattening Agent

A material added to paints, varnishes, etc. to reduce the gloss of the film




The visual impression created by the reflecting properties of a surface



Grinning Through

The effect observed when a paint does not totally obscure the underlying surface




A cross-linking agent used to cure a resin or paint system



Hiding Power

The ability of a paint to obliterate the color difference of a substrate: opacity




Defects characterized by a film having areas of insufficient thickness, even to the point where parts of the surface may remain uncoated


To undergo a chemical process of decomposition involving splitting of a bond and addition of the elements of water




A material used in small proportion to slow a chemical reaction




An organic compound; some of the more familiar ketone solvents arc acetone and methyl ethylketone



Kick Out

Separation of constituents of a coating caused by addition of incorrect solvent




The flowing out of a paint film after application so as to produce a level surface




A chemical that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions and is used as an acid base indicator




A heavy-bodied, paste-like coating often applied with a trowel to produce a thick, protective film



M Ohm

1,000,000 ohms



Non-Drying Oil

An oil which does not of itself possess to a perceptible degree the power to take up oxygen from the air and lose its liquid characteristics



Non-Volatile Vehicle

The total sum of the constituents of the liquid phase of the paint, not readily vaporizable at a relatively low temperature




The standard unit of electrical resistance




The ability' of a paint to obliterate the color difference of a substrate; hiding power



Orange Peel

The pock-marked appearance of a sprayed film due to its failure to flow out to a level surface




Sprayed paint which misses the surface to be coated




Combination of coating molecules with atmospheric oxygen




A description of the degree to which a substance is acid or alkaline; pH is expressed by means of a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 representing neutrality. Numbers less than 7 indicate acidity; the lower the number, the more acidic the substance




pH numbers greater than 7 indicate alkalinity; the higher the number the more alkaline the substance




A substance, generally in fine powder form, which is practically insoluble in media and which is physically dispersed in the binder to impart specific physical and chemical properties (optical, protective, decorative, etc.)




Minute holes in a dry film which form during application and drying of paint






Chemical added, especially to rubbers and resins, to impart flexibility, workability, or stretchability




A chemical compound or mixture of compounds formed by polymerization




A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules




The first coat of a painting system that helps bind subsequent coats to the substrate and which may inhibit its deterioration




A natural or synthetic material used to bind pigments together and to the substrate




A slow evaporating solvent used as a thinner to slow down the speed of drying of a paint or lacquer to improve the application properties or produce a better film




Undesirable particles or granules other than dues, found in a paint or varnish



Spreading Rate

Refers to the area, in square feet, which can be covered by one gallon of coating at a given Wet Film Thickness (WFT)




A liquid, single or blended, which is volatile under normal drying conditions and in which the binder will dissolve completely




The formation of irregular lines or streaks of various colors in a paint film caused by contamination of insufficient or improper incorporation of colorant




The surface to which a coat of paint or varnish is applied




Drops of paint which collect on the bottom edges of items painted by dipping




A volatile liquid, single or blended, added to paint to facilitate application by lowering the viscosity




The property of a paint whereby the consistency is reduced on brushing or stirring by lowering the viscosity



Too Thick Coatings

Mil thickness is greater than specified; can result in blisters or other failures



Too Thin Coatings

Mil thickness less than specified; can result in premature coating failure


The total sum of the constituents of the liquid phase of the paint

Wet Film Thickness (WFT)

The thickness of a coating immediately after application, before any solvent has evaporated


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