Welding terminology

ABS  Abbreviation for American Bureau of Shipping (classification Society).
ACETYLENE  Colourless gas with high carbon content, lighter than air, C2H2.
AC  Alternating current
AlR CARBON ARC GOUGING Removal of material from electrically conductive metals by means of an electric arc between carbon electrode and workpiece combined with an air pressure jet adjacent to the electrode.
AlSl  Abbreviation for American Iron and Steel Institute.
ALLOYED STEEL  Steel which, in addition to carbon, contains certain alloy elements to provide  special  characteristics.
ALUMINIUM  Aluminium alloys with high copper content. See section BRONZE on Metals and Alloys.
AMMETER  Instrument for measuring electrical current measured in amperes.
AMPERAGE  Strength of an electrical current measured in amperes.
ANNEAL  Removal of internal stresses in metal by heating and slow cooling.
ANSI  Abbreviation for American National Standard Institute.
ARC BLOW  Deflection of intended arc pattern by magnetic fields.
ARC FORCE The axial force developed by an arc plasma.
ARC STRIKE  A discontinuity consisting of any localized remelted metal, heat affected metal, or change in the surface profile of any part of a weld or base metal resulting from an arc.
ARGON Inert gas - used as shielding gas in wire welding and TIG welding.
ASM  Abbreviation for American Society for Metals.
ASME  Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineering. Issues regulations relating to planning and construction of welded installations.
ASTM  Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials.
AUSTENITE  Nonmagnetic stainless steel that cannot be hardened by heat treatment. This type of steel is characterised by its unique grain structure. Contains at least 11 % chromium with varying amounts of nickel.
AWS  Abbreviation for American Welding Society.
BACK BEAD A weld bead resulting from a back weld pass.
BACKFIRE The momentary recession of the flame into the welding tip or cutting tip followed by immediate reappearance or complete extinction of the flame.
BACK GOUGING The removal of weld metal and base metal from the other side of a partially welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent welding from that side.
BACKUP BAR  Tool or fixture attached to the root of weld joint. Tool may or may not control the shape of the penetrating metal.
BACKUP GAS  Shielding gas which protects the root of the weld from the atmosphere.
BASE MATERIAL  The material in components to be joined by welding. The composition and dimension of the base materials are the deciding factors for the welding process and filler material to be used.
BASIC COATING  Electrode coating consisting of calcite, fluorspar, ferromanganese and ferrosilicium.
BERYLLIUM  Hard, light metallic element used in copper for better fatigue endurance.
BEVEL  Angular type of edge preparation.
BEVEL ANGLE The angle formed between the prepared edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.
BOILER STEEL  Better known as heat resistant construction steel. Weldable and corrosion resistant steel with satisfactory resistance under high thermic conditions, approx. 500-700°C. This type of steel may be unalloyed,low alloyed or stainless.
BORE  Inside diameter of hole, tube or hollow object.
BRAZING  The method where surface bonding between the base material and filler metal is  achieved.
BRIGHT METAL  Material preparation where the surface has been ground or machined to a bright surface to remove scale or oxides.
BRINELL HARDNESS  Abbreviated HB, denoting load in kp from a hard steel ball divided by the spherical area of indentation in mm2. Expressed in kp mm2.
BS  Abbreviation for British Standard.
BUILDUP A surfacing variation in which surfacing metal is deposited to achieve the required dimensions. 
BURNTHROUGH  Weld which has melted through, resulting in a ho!e and excessive penetration.
BUTTERING  A surfacing variation in which surfacing metal is deposited to achieve the required dimensions. 
BUTT JOINT A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same plane.
BV  Abbreviation for Bureau Veritas (French classification institute).
CADMIUM White ductile metallic element used for plating material to prevent corrosion.
CAPILLARY BRAZING  Method of brazing using the capillary forces to draw the filler metal into narrow gaps. Max. gap for capillary brazing is 0.1 mm.
CARBIDES  Compound of carbon with one or more metal elements.
CAST IRON ELECTRODES  Welding electrode specially suitable for welding and repair of cast iron. The electrode has a core of nickel or nickel alloy and a slag forming and arc stabilizing coating.
CE  Equipment with CE-markings fulfils the basic requirements of the Low Voltage and Electromagnetic Compatibility Guideline.
CLADDING  Layer of material applied to a surface for the purpose of improved corrosion  
COLD CRACK A crack which develops after solidification is complete.
COLD LAPS  Area of weld that has not fused with the base metal.
CONCAVE WELD CROWN  Weld crown that is curved inward.
CONSTRUCTION STEEL    General expression denoting weldable steel in strength  classification 37-60 kp/mm2.
CONTACT TUBE A device which transfers current to a continuous electrode.
CONTAMINATION Indicates a dirty part, impure shielding gas or impure filler metal.
CONTOUR  Shape of the weld bead or pass.
CONVEX WELD CROWN  Weld crown that is curved outward.
COPPER  Metal element with melting point at 1083 °C. Cu.
CORNER JOINT A joint between two members located approximately at right angles to each other.
CORROSION  Eating away of material by a corrosive medium.
CRATER  Depression at the end of a weld that has insufficient cross section.
CRATER CRACKS  Cracking that occurs in the crater.
CSA  Equipment with CSA-Test mark fulfils the requirements made in the relevant standards for Canada and the USA.
CUNIFER  Alloy of copper and nickel. Seawater resistant. 
DC  Direct current.
DEEP WELDING ELECTRODES Electrodes with acid or rutile organic coatings which increase the arc effect and generation of heat in the melting-in process.
DEOXIDIZED FILLER MATERIALS  Filler materials which contains deoxidizers such as aluminium, zirconium and   titanium for welding steels.
DESTRUCTIVE TESTING DT - series of tests by destruction to determine the quality of a weld.
DEWARS  Specially constructed tank similar to a vacuum bottle for the storage of Iiquified gases.
DIN  Abbreviating for Deutsche lnstitut  für  Normung.
DIRECT CURRENT  Flow of current (electrons) in only one direction, either to the workpiece or to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE  NEGATIVE (DCEN)  Direct current flowing from electrode to the work.
DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE POSITIVE (DCEP)  Direct current from work to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT REVERSE POLARITY (DCRP)  See Direct Current Electrode Positive.
DIRECT CURRENT STRAIGHT POLARITY (DCRP) See Direct Current Electrode Negative.
DNV  Abbreviation for Det Norske  Veritas (Norwegian classification institute).
DOWNHAND  A nonstandard term for flat position.
DUCTILITY  Property of material causing it to deform permanently, or to exhibit plasticity without breaking while under tension.
DUTY CYCLE  Arc/time factor - the relationship between the time the arc is in operation and the total working time measured over a period of 10 minutes. Expressed in % of the time the welding machine can work at a certain amperage in this period. I.e. a 30% intermittence the arc can be in operation 3 min. of the period. During the remaining time the machine will be at rest while electrodes are changed, slag removed etc. 
ELECTRIC STEEL  Steel produced in an electro-furnace.
ELONGATION  Permanent elastic extension which metal undergoes during tensile testing. Amount of extension is usually indicated by percentages of original gauge length. Measurements is usually based on 5 x D or 10 x D, where ‘D' is the diameter of the test rod.
EN  The European Community for standardization has developed a nomenclature in welding, Euronorm E.N.
FACE REINFORCEMENT  Weld reinforcement at the side of the joint from which welding was done.
FAYING SURFACE That mating surface of a member that is in contact with or in close proximity to another member to which it is to be joined.
FCAW  Flux Cored Arc Welding
FERROUS METALS  Group of metals containing substantial amounts of iron.
FERRUM  Latin name for chemically  pure iron (Fe).
FERRITE NUMBER  An arbitrary standardized value designating the ferrite content of an austenitic stainless steel weld metal. It should be used in place of percent ferrite or volume percent ferrite on a direct replacement basis.
FILLER METAL The metal to be added in making a welded, brazed, or soldered joint. 
FILLET WELD  Weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles and a lap joint, ‘T' joint or corner joint.
FILLET WELD SIZE  For equal leg filler welds, the leg lengths of the largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For unequal leg filler welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
FLASH WELDING A resistance welding process that produces coalescence at the faying surfaces of a butt joint by a flashing action and by the application of pressure after heating is substantially completed. The flashing action, caused by the very high current densities at small contacts between the parts, forcibly expels the material from the joint as the parts are slowly moved together. The weld is completed by a rapid upsetting of the workpieces.
FLOW METER  Mechanical device used for measuring shielding gas rate of flow. Usually measurements are liter per. Min(l/min).or  in cubic feet per hour (CFH).
FLUX Material in the form of powder or paste, used in gas welding and brazing to prevent or facilitate removal of oxide and other contaminating substances from the surface of the base material. Fluxes may be corrosive.
FORGE WELDING A solid state welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them in air in a forge and by applying pressure or blows sufficient to cause permanent deformation at the interface. 
GAS SHIELDED ARC WELDING Welding processes where the arc and molten pool are surrounded by a protective - shielding - gas. The gas may be of inert type or Carbon Dioxide or a mixture of these gases together with Hydrogen or Oxygen.
GMAW  Gas Metal Arc Welding.
GRAPHITE  Carbon flakes in cast iron. (Not chemically fused with the iron).
GREY CAST IRON  Cast iron in which most of the carbon is in the form of graphite flakes.
GROOVE ANGLE  The angle of a V-groove expressed in degrees. Normal groove angle for electric arc welding is 50-60°, depending on welding position and metal thickness.
GTAW  Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. The shielding gas will here always be of INERT type. Same welding method as TIG welding.
HARD BRAZING  A common name of brazing methods where capillary forces are used. 
HARD SURFACING  Hard material applied to surface of softer material for protection from abrasion and wear.
HIGH ALLOY STEEL  Steel containing more than 5% of one or more alloy elements.
IMPACT RESISTANCE  The energy, expressed in kp.m or Joule, absorbed by a test rod of predetermined shape at a certain temperature.
INERT GAS  Gas that does not normally combine chemically with the base metal or filler material. Also referred to as nobel gas.
INTERMITTANCE  See duty cycle.
INTERPASS TEMPERATURE In multiple pass weld, minimum and maximum temperature specified for the deposited metal before next weld pass is started.
INVERTER  Welding power source were the normal frequency is set to a very high value thereby reducing the need for a heavy iron core in order to reduce the voltage.
ISO  Abbreviation for International Standardization Organisation.
KERF The width of the cut produced during a cutting process.
KILLED STEEL  Steel which contains fairly large quantities of ferrosilicium or aluminium. This type of steel is suitable for welded connections.
LOW ALLOY STEEL  Steel containing 1-5% alloy elements.
LR  Lloyds Register of Shipping (British classification Society)
MAG-WELDING  Metal Active Gas-welding. (see also GMAW).
MANGANESE  An important alloy in steel, melting point 1245 °C. Chemical symbol Mn.
MARTENSITE  Structure obtained when steel is heated and cooled to achieve its maximum hardness.
MIG-WELDING  Metal Inert Gas-welding. See also Gas Shielded Arc Welding and GMAW.
MILD STEEL  Unalloyed steel, maximum carbon content 0.25%.
MPa  Mega Pascal
NDT-TESTS  Abbreviation for Non-Destructive Testing, i.e. testing and investigation materials or components without  destroying these. Involves use of radiography, supersonic testing, magnetic powder, penetrating fluids etc.
NON-RETURN VALVE  A device  fitted on the outlet of the regulator of a gas cylinder which prevent any flame from a backfire in the welding torch from returning to the gas cylinder.
NS  Abbreviation for the Norwegian Standards Association.
NSFI  Abbreviation for the Norwegian Research Institute for Ships. 
OUT-OF POSITION WELDING Welding that is performed in a non-standard way such as vertical or overhead.
OXIDE FILM  Film formed on base material as a result of exposure to oxidizing agents, atmosphere, chemicals or heat.
OXYGEN  Colourless gas without odour or taste. Chemical symbol 02. Oxygen is not flammable itself, but feeds flames and is used together with Acetylene for welding and cutting.
ORGANIC ELECTRODES Electrodes having consumable organic components in the coating i.e. cellulose. Small slag deposits.
POLARITY  Direction of current. Current moving from the electrode to the workpiece is DCEN or DCSP. Current flow from the workpiece to the electrode is DCEP or DCRP.
POLYMER  Chemical reaction between resin (Base) and a hardener (Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer network.
POROSITY  Pores within a weld caused by gas entrapment during solidification of weld metal.
POSTHEAT  Heat which is applied at the end of the weld cycle to slow down cooling rate to prevent cracking and to relieve stress.
PPM-VALUE  Parts per million.
PRIMARY CABLE  The cable which carries current from the mains supply to the primary side of a welding machine.
PROPANE  Colourless, flammable gas, heavier than air, chemical formula 3
PUDDLE   A nonstandard term for weld pool.
RECTIFIER  A welding power-source which gives DC welding current. Part of a power-source which converts AC to DC.
REGULATOR  An appliance for the reduction of gas pressure from a gas cylinder to a suitable pressure for welding or cutting. Equipped with pressure gauges indicating cylinder pressure and working pressure.
REMOTE CONTROL  Control of welding current from the welding area. Adjustment is by means of additional cable or through the welding cable.
ROOT PASS  The first welding pass in a groove.
RUTILE ELECTRODES  Coated electrodes containing ilmenite, TiO2, in the coating.
SECONDARY CABLE  The cable which carries current from the secondary side of a welding machine to the workpiece and electrode holder.
SPATTER  Small pieces of metal which have been ejected from molten pool and attached to base material outside the weld.
STAINLESS STEEL  Common term for two main groups: chrome alloy (ferritic) and chrome-nickel alloy (austenitic) steel. Austenitic steel is non-magnetic.
STRINGER BEAD  Weld bead made without oscillation, side-to-side motion.
SURFACING  Applying material to the surface of another material for protection from  chemipals, heat, wear, rust etc.
TACK WELD  Weld made to hold parts of weldment in alignment until final weld is made.
TENSILE STRENGTH  Indicates the breaking strength of a material,expressed in N/mm2.
TENSILE TEST  A destructive test where a weld is pulled apart. This test determines how much tension a weld can withstand before the weld gives.
THERMIC SPRAYING  A method of bulling up a workpiece by spraying on finely powdered metal alloys. Can also be used for spraying zinc and plastic powders for surface protection.
TIG WELDING  Tungsten inert gas welding.
THERMOCROME CRAYONS Temperature indicating crayons. Used to control  temperature levels.
TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE An electrode of pure tungsten or tungsten alloyed with rare earths, lanthanum, cerium, torium or zirconium. High melting point - 3410 °C. Used for TIG welding. Tungsten is also known as Wolfram.
UNALLOYED STEEL  Steel containing up to 1 % alloy elements.
WASH BEAD  Weld beads made with an oscillation - side-to-side  technique to widen the weld bead.
WELD POOL The localized volume of molten metal in a weld prior to its solidification as weld metal.
WELDING DIRECTION  An expression used in welding and brazing indicating the direction of the welding process in relation to the welder.
WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION    A document providing in detail the required variables for a specific application to  assure repeatability by properly trained welders and welding operators. 
WELDING TRANSFORMER Welding power-source giving AC welding current.
WHISKERS  Pieces of weld wire which have penetrated through the weld joint and melted. The wire extends beyond the penetration on the root side of the weld.
WIG  Wolfram Inert Gas. Same welding method as TIG welding.
WROUGHT MATERIAL  Material made by processes other than casting.
YIELD POINT  The stress level at which a steel material starts to become plastic and shows signs of cross-contraction and permanent deformity. Expressed in N/mm2.
YORCALBRO  Seawater resistant alloy of aluminium and brass.


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